On-road & Last-mile Robots and Business Models for the Delivery Services Market

  •  Gary Yates
  •  Nov 19, 2021
  •  2290 views
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In this report, we look at the robotic offerings that are available in the delivery industry today. Primarily, we cover the last-mile delivery robots, both sidewalk robots and on-road autonomous vehicles, as well as in-building delivery robots that perform delivery tasks within building premises.


Report Structure


Overview

The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has brought about disruption to the delivery services industry — from the shortage of human labor, to the rising costs of labor and towards the new normal of a no-touch or low-touch economy.


These factors inadvertently contributed to a powerful push towards the increasing adoption of autonomous robots for the last-mile goods-to-consumer delivery. It is widely expected that the total delivery robots market will exceed US$1 billion in value by 2026-2027.

Market Players. We have compiled and are continuing to compile a growing list of players (refer to table below) in the delivery robot space, organized by on-road autonomous vehicles, sidewalk delivery robots and in-building delivery robots.



Delivery Robot Dataset

 



State of the Market

On-road Autonomous Vehicles. We are also likely to see increasing deployment of on-road delivery vehicles that can make deliveries over a wide operating radius. For example, Nuro vehicles are legally permitted to provide commercial delivery services in designated parts of Sana Clara and San Mateo in California.

These vehicles are approved to ply the roads with a maximum speed of 25 mph and only for roads with a speed limit of 35 mph under fair weather conditions.


Nuro R2 on the Road

Sidewalk Delivery Robots. States are increasingly introducing new legislation to legalize the use of sidewalk delivery robots (or PDDs — Personal Delivery Devices), with Virginia leading the charge with Senate bill SB 1207 in 2017, initially permitting only robots under the weight of 50 pounds to ply pedestrian sidewalks at a maximum speed of 10 miles per hour.

Today, most states require an unladen weight limit of between 80 to 120 pounds for PDDs, except for Virginia, North Carolina (SB 739) and Pennsylvania (SB 1199) which have raised weight limits of up to 500 to 550 pounds.

The speed limit along sidewalks is generally stipulated as 10 to 12 miles per hour, with the exception of Washington state (HB 1325) which imposes a safe 6 miles per hour. States such as Virginia, Utah (HB 227), Texas (SB 969), North Carolina, Colorado (SB 20-092) and Pennsylvania further permit PDDs to navigate along the side of roads at speed limits of 20 to 25 miles per hour.


Amazon Scout navigating the sidewalk


Business Models

In-building delivery robots are directly used by building or premise owners and thus, the business model between robot manufacturers (and/or their business representatives) and the premise owners tend to be straight-forward.

The two common business models are the capital expenditure (CAPEX) model where the premise owners buy and own the robots and pay for annual maintenance fees, and the robot-as-a-service (RaaS) model where the premise owners pay for the services of the robots based on usage time and contract period.

RaaS monthly costs can range from US$500 to US$2000 per robot per month depending on the provider (refer to table above on recurring pricing)


Last-mile outdoor delivery robots can range from sidewalk robots (PDDs or Personal Delivery Devices) with limited operating range to on-road vehicles with a wider delivery radius, such as Udelv, Nuro R2 and Robomart.

These delivery robots can be owned and used exclusively by a company, such as Amazon Scout or Fedex Roxo. They can also be open platforms where either the supplier company or consumers pay based on delivery amount or distance travelled. These can typically range from US$2-4 dollars per delivery for sidewalk robots and US$6 or more for on-road vehicles (refer to table above).

Instead of delivering specific orders, Robomart delivers the entire grocery store directly to the consumer, taking a cut off the grocery purchases.




Highlights (On-road Delivery Vehicles)

R2

R2 is a last-mile on-road delivery vehicle developed by Nuro (USA). Deployed in the delivery & logistics industry, R2's pricing model is based on a pay-per-use model basis with a recurring fee of US$5.95 per delivery.

R2 is intended for on-road use.

Key Information
Product R2 
Company Nuro (USA) 
Function last-mile on-road delivery vehicle 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Available Regions USA (California) 
Deployment on-road 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://www.nuro.ai/technology.. 
Pricing 
Model pay-per-use model 
Recurring (est) US$5.95 per delivery 

Uber Delivery (Motional)

Uber Delivery (Motional) is a last-mile on-road delivery vehicle developed by Uber (USA) and Motional (USA) for the delivery & logistics industry.

Uber Delivery (Motional) is intended for on-road use.

Key Information
Product Uber Delivery (Motional) 
Company Uber (USA) and Motional (USA) 
Function last-mile on-road delivery vehicle 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Available Regions USA (Santa Monica) 
Deployment on-road 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://motional.com/news/motional-and-uber-announce-partnership-for-autonomous-deliveries.. 
Pricing 
Model pay-per-use model 

Cleveron 701

Cleveron 701 is a last-mile on-road delivery vehicle developed by Cleveron (Estonia) for the delivery & logistics industry.

Cleveron 701 is intended for outdoor use.

Key Information
Product Cleveron 701 
Company Cleveron (Estonia) 
Function last-mile on-road delivery vehicle 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment outdoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://cleveron.com/cleveron-mobility/cleveron-701.. 
Weight 
Max Load 200 kg 
Operations 
Speed 25 km/h 
Op Notes Same-hour delivery within 15-30 min drive radius 


Highlights (Sidewalk Delivery Robots)

Xiaomanlv

Xiaomanlv is a last-mile sidewalk delivery robot developed by Alibaba (China) for the delivery & logistics industry.

Xiaomanlv is intended for outdoor use.

Key Information
Product Xiaomanlv 
Company Alibaba (China) 
Function last-mile sidewalk delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment outdoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 

robby

Robby is a last-mile sidewalk delivery robot developed by Robby Technologies (USA) for the delivery & logistics industry.

Robby is intended for outdoor use.

Key Information
Product robby 
Company Robby Technologies (USA) 
Function last-mile sidewalk delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment outdoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://robby.io/product 

Serve

Serve is a last-mile sidewalk delivery robot developed by Serve Robotics (USA) for the delivery & logistics industry.

Serve is intended for outdoor use.

Key Information
Product Serve 
Company Serve Robotics (USA) 
Function last-mile sidewalk delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment outdoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://www.serverobotics.com.. 


Highlights (In-building Delivery Robots)

TUG T3XL

TUG T3XL is an in-building delivery robot developed by Aethon (USA). Deployed in the delivery & logistics and healthcare industries, TUG T3XL's pricing model is based on a robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model basis with a recurring fee of US$1,200 - $2,000 per month.

TUG T3XL is intended for indoor use.

Key Information
Product TUG T3XL 
Company Aethon (USA) 
Function in-building delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment indoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics and Healthcare 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://aethon.com/products/ 
Pricing 
Model Robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model 
Recurring (est) US$1,200 - $2,000 per month 
Dimensions 
Length 1168 mm 
Weight 
Max Load 1400 lb (635 kg) 
Duration 
Usage 10 hours (intermittent charging) 
Operations 
Speed 0.76 m/s 

TUG Exchange

TUG Exchange is an in-building delivery robot developed by Aethon (USA). Deployed in the delivery & logistics and healthcare industries, TUG Exchange's pricing model is based on a robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model basis with a recurring fee of US$1,200 - $2,000 per month.

TUG Exchange is intended for indoor use.

Key Information
Product TUG Exchange 
Company Aethon (USA) 
Function in-building delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment indoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics and Healthcare 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://aethon.com/products/ 
Pricing 
Model Robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model 
Recurring (est) US$1,200 - $2,000 per month 
Dimensions 
Length 965 mm 
Weight 
Max Load 750 lb (340 kg) 
Duration 
Usage 10 hours (intermittent charging) 
Operations 
Speed 0.76 m/s 

TUG Drawer

TUG Drawer is an in-building delivery robot developed by Aethon (USA). Deployed in the delivery & logistics, hospitality and healthcare industries, TUG Drawer's pricing model is based on a robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model basis with a recurring fee of US$1,200 - $2,000 per month.

TUG Drawer is intended for indoor use.

Key Information
Product TUG Drawer 
Company Aethon (USA) 
Function in-building delivery robot 
Sub-Form wheeled 
Deployment indoor 
Industry Delivery & Logistics, Hospitality and Healthcare 
Tech Domain Robotics 
URL https://aethon.com/products/ 
Pricing 
Model Robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model 
Recurring (est) US$1,200 - $2,000 per month 
Dimensions 
Length 520 mm 
Weight 
Max Load 500 lb (227 kg) 
Duration 
Usage 10 hours (intermittent charging) 
Operations 
Speed 0.76 m/s 
Op Notes 7 - 11 drawers configuration